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Hindu-Arabic numerals

finger numerals
Muslim caculation systems
Muslim caculation systems

The Indian numerals discussed in our article Indian numerals form the basis of the European number systems which are now widely used. However they were not transmitted directly from India to Europe but rather came first to the Arabic/Islamic peoples and from them to Europe.

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Plato – The Timaeus

The Timaeus

The Composition of the Soul

"We shall therefore borrow all our Rules for the Finishing our Proportions, from the Musicians, who are the greatest Masters of this Sort of Numbers, and from those Things wherein Nature shows herself most excellent and compleat." Leon Battista Alberti (1407-1472).

arithmetic, geometric, harmonic means

arithmetic, geometric, harmonic means

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The three R’s

  • reading
  • (w)riting
  • (a)rithmetic