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Three ways to see an atom

Atom
A remarkable photo of a single atom trapped by electric fields has just been awarded the top prize in a well-known science photography competition. The photo is titled “Single Atom in an Ion Trap” and was shot by David Nadlinger of the University of Oxford
A remarkable photo of a single atom trapped by electric fields has just been awarded the top prize in a well-known science photography competition. The photo is titled “Single Atom in an Ion Trap” and was shot by David Nadlinger of the University of Oxford.

If there is no way in the world to see an atom, then how do we know that the atom is made of protons, electrons, neutrons, the nucleus and the electron cloud?

There are three ways that scientists have proved that these sub-atomic particles exist. They are direct observation, indirect observation or inferred presence and predictions from theory or conjecture.

Atomic model
Atomic model

Scientists in the 1800’s were able to infer a lot about the sub-atomic world from The Periodic Table of Elements by Mendeleyev gave scientists two very important things. The regularity of the table and the observed combinations of chemical compounds prompted some scientists to infer that atoms had regular repeating properties and that maybe they had similar structures.

 

J.J. Thompson
J.J. Thompson

Other scientists studying the discharge effects of electricity in gasses made some direct discoveries. J.J. Thompson was the first to observe and understand the small particles called electrons. These were called cathode rays because they came from the cathode, or negative electrode, of these discharge tubes. It was quickly learned that electrons could be formed into beams and manipulated into images that would ultimately become television. Electrons could also produce something else. Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895. His discovery was a byproduct of studying electrons. Protons could also be observed directly as well as ions as “anode” rays. These positive particles made up the other half of the atomic world that the chemists had already worked out. The chemists had measured the mass or weight of the elements. The periodic chart and chemical properties proved that there was an atomic number also. This atomic number was eventually identified as the charge of the nucleus or the number of electrons surrounding an atom which is almost always found in a neutral, or balanced, state.

Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford

Rutherford proved in 1911, that there was a nucleus. He did this directly by shooting alpha particles at other atoms, like gold, and observing that sometimes they bounced back the way they came. There was no way this could be explained by the current picture of the atom which was thought to be a homogeneous mix. Rutherford proved directly by scattering experiments that there was something heavy and solid at the center. The nucleus was discovered. For about 20 years the nucleus was thought to consist of a number of protons to equal the atomic weight and some electrons to reduce the charge so the atomic number came out right. This was very unsettling to many scientists. There were predictions and conjectures that something was missing.

James Chadwick
James Chadwick

In 1932 Chadwick found that a heavy neutral particle was emitted by some radioactive atoms. This particle was about the same mass as a proton, but it had a no electric charge. This was the “missing piece” (famous last words). The nucleus could now be much better explained by using neutrons and protons to make up the atomic weight and atomic number. This made much better sense of the atomic world. There were now electrons equal to the atomic number surrounding the nucleus made up of neutrons and protons.

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen raggi X
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen raggi X

Mr. Roentgen’s x-rays allowed scientists to measure the size of the atom. The x-rays were small enough to discern the atomic clouds. This was done by scattering x-rays from atoms and measuring their size just as Rutherford had done earlier by hitting atoms with other nuclei starting with alpha particles.

Cyclotron - 1930 particle accelerator
Cyclotron – 1930 particle accelerator

The 1930’s were also the time when the first practical particle accelerators were invented and used. These early machines made beams of protons. These beams could be used to measure the size of the atomic nucleus. And the search goes on today. Scientists are still filling in the missing pieces in the elementary particle world. Where will it end? Around about 1890, scientists were lamenting the death of physics and pondering a life reduced to measuring the next decimal point! Discoveries made in the 1890’s proved that the surface had only been scratched.

Carbon Atomic Model
Carbon Atomic Model

Each decade of the 1900’s has seen the frontier pushed to smaller and smaller objects. The explosion of knowledge has not slowed down and as each threshold has been passed the amount of new science seems to be greater even as we probe to smaller dimensions. Current theories (if correct) imply that there is even more below the next horizon awaiting discovery

Text Author: Paul Brindza, Experimental Hall A Design Leader

Source: https://education.jlab.org/qa/history_04.html
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3-click rule — the magic number – UX Collective

3-click rule — the magic number

A maximum of information in a minimum of words.

UI UX design
UI UX design

This is a particularly deep belief for your graphic designer friends for 10 years, but we have come a long way, and the usability tests have shown it for a while…

I will not lie to you any longer, users of your services will not leave your site or application if they can not find the information they are looking for in 3 clicks.

The number of clicks needed does not affect the success rate and even less the satisfaction of users: the important thing is to have a smooth, easy and understandable navigation (yes, the rules of 3 adjectives affect me too).

The scent of information

The concept is a simple idea and quite primitive as the name suggests : to have a good hunt, you must follow a good smell!

On a website or an application, the smell will take shape with the content, scented with confidence, the right word, the good image.

A little like my previous article about form field (Form fields — Required vs Optional), never forget that the most important thing when designing a product is to give the user the feeling of being in the center of all the expectations.

It’s a bit like setting a trap for a hungry bear, bait him, feed him to your final goal and he will follow you without even realizing it.

The key is your content: put it in value, coated to bring your user to be tempted to immerse himself in it and especially not let him lose The scent of information !

Once lost, the user hesitates, it becomes difficult for him to finish the action, and he will eventually notice the number of clicks you ask him to do.

Do not waste time worrying about the number of clicks, worry about the scent of information.

Disclamer :

I already see the crowd of designer dissatisfied ‘yes that’s fine theory, but when you can do 2 click instead of 6 is better no?’

YES, of course, this article is meant to make you think, to give you concrete information about the different studies done about the 3 clicks rule, but do not get me wrong, when you can do 2 clicks instead of 6 without spoiling the navigation experience, made it, but do not forget The scent of information.

Jordane SamsonJordane Samson
Head of design @gojob - 
#UX provider. For more from jordane sanson and to follow him select the link below: https://medium.com/@JordaneSanson/followers
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Buckminster Fuller explains threeness in the Universe

Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller

Buckminster Fuller

  1. The stability of the triangle
  2. The one quantum created in the tetrahedron
  3. How the icosahedron, the octahedron and tetrahedron create everything in the universe
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ORM – object relational mapping

Object Relational Mapping
Object Relational Mapping
ORM (Object-relational mapping) in computer science is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems using object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a “virtual object database” that can be used from within the programming language.
Source: Wikipedia
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Difference Between Fartlek, Tempo, and Interval Runs? | Runner’s World

Speed Play - The Fun of Fartlek

Here’s a quick breakdown of these three major types of speed workouts.

Fartleks, That’s fun to say
Fartleks, That’s fun to say. Elf.

Hi Jenny, I just read your article, ‘What Should I Do During the Off Season?’. Very helpful, thanks! Could you briefly explain to me the difference between fartlek, tempo, and interval runs? Thanks! Mary

Hi, Mary. Thanks for the kudos. Ask and you shall receive: Here is a brief 411 on fartlek, tempo, and interval workouts.

Fartlek Workouts are not only fun to say out loud, but they’re fun to run. Fartlek is Swedish for “speed play,” and that is exactly what it’s all about. Unlike tempo and interval work, fartlek is unstructured and alternates moderate-to-hard efforts with easy throughout. After a warmup, you play with speed by running at faster efforts for short periods of time (to that tree, to the sign) followed by easy-effort running to recover. It’s fun in a group setting as you can alternate the leader and mix up the pace and time. And in doing so, you reap the mental benefits of being pushed by your buddies through an unpredictable workout. The goal is to keep it free-flowing so you’re untethered to the watch or a plan, and to run at harder efforts but not a specific pace.

Benefits: Stress-free workout that improves mind-body awareness, mental strength, and stamina.

Tempo Workouts are like an Oreo cookie, with the warmup and cooldown as the cookie, and a run at an effort at or slightly above your anaerobic threshold (the place where your body shifts to using more glycogen for energy) as the filling. This is the effort level just outside your comfort zone—you can hear your breathing, but you’re not gasping for air. If you can talk easily, you’re not in the tempo zone, and if you can’t talk at all, you’re above the zone. It should be at an effort somewhere in the middle, so you can talk in broken words. Pace is not an effective means for running a tempo workout, as there are many variables that can affect pace including heat, wind, fatigue, and terrain. Learn how to find your threshold and run a tempo workout that is spot on every time here.

Benefits: Increased lactate threshold to run faster at easier effort levels. Improves focus, race simulation, and mental strength.

Interval Workouts are short, intense efforts followed by equal or slightly longer recovery time. For example, after a warmup, run two minutes at a hard effort, followed by two to three minutes of easy jogging or walking to catch your breath. Unlike tempo workouts, you’re running above your red line and at an effort where you are reaching hard for air and counting the seconds until you can stop—a controlled fast effort followed by a truly easy jog. The secret is in the recovery as patience and discipline while you’re running easy allows you to run the next interval strong and finish the entire workout fatigued but not completely spent. Just like rest, your body adapts and gets stronger in the recovery mode.

Benefits: Improved running form and economy, endurance, mind-body coordination, motivation, and fat-burning.

Happy Trails.

* * *

You can ask Coach Jenny a running question on the Ask Coach Jenny Facebook Page or email your question here. Follow her on Twitter @coachjenny.

—Source: www.runnersworld.com/training/a20852351/whats-the-difference-between-fartlek-tempo-and-interval-runs/

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The Experience of Learning

uxplanet
uxplanet.org  
http://uxplanet.org

The process of learning is an important and implicit part of the users’ interaction with products, both in a digital and non-digital realm. It is a continuous process, regardless of their level of expertise or previous familiarity with the subject matter. It begins with the users’ initial interaction with the product and continues all the way through as most advanced functions and features are learned. An effective learning experience can greatly enhance the users’ overall experience with the product.

The action of learning is a three-step process, comprised of Information Acquisition, Information Processing and Information Cataloging/Action Taking. Let’s take a look at what is involved in each of these three steps.

Discussion

The goal of this discussion is to explore the nature of the action of learning, as well as to define what factors ensure the most effective learning process for the user.

The Action of Learning

The action of learning is a three-step process, comprised of Information Acquisition, Information Processing and Information Cataloguing/Action Taking. Let’s take a look at what is involved in each of these three steps.

Information Acquisition

In this first step, the user receives new information from a single source or from multiple sources. This new information may be presented in a visual, auditory, or sensory format.

Information Processing

In the second step, the user processes the newly acquired information by acknowledging and understanding its meaning. This step is dependent on the user’s individual mental processing capabilities, which may vary from person to person. The user’s previous familiarity with similar types of information may play a significant role in his/her processing of this new information.

Information Cataloguing and Action Taking

Having processed the newly received information the user in turn then stores it for future use by mentally cataloguing it. As part of this cataloguing process, the user creates necessary contextual associations to easily access the newly learned information at a later date. At times, as we will see shortly, the Action Taking is conducted without the need for Cataloguing.

Later in this discussion we will look at some of the factors, which provide for a more effective learning process for the user. Now, however, let’s take a look at a commonplace example, which will illustrate the three steps involved in the action of learning. I refer to this as the Traffic Light Sequence.

Step 1 — Information Acquisition

As the driver approaches an intersection, the traffic light changes from green to yellow; a visual cue. The driver acquires this new information and acknowledges the change in the traffic light. His/her ability to understand the meaning of this event will largely be based on previously learned information about the individual meanings of the colors of the traffic light.

Step 2 — Information Processing

Having acknowledged that the traffic light changed, the driver has to process the actual meaning of this event. The driver is aware that a certain action is needed to respond to the change in the traffic light. Other ambient factors may require additional mental tasks and calculations on the part of the driver, such as noticing the presence of the police vehicle within the driver’s peripheral vision. These ambient factors place an additional burden on the driver’s decision-making capability to take the most effective (and safe) course of action.

Step 3 — Action Taking

Having completed the information-processing task(s) the driver makes the decision to apply the brakes and come to a complete stop. This action completes the third and last step in this sequence.

The Elements of Learning

The action of learning is a highly individualized process in that it varies from person to person. There are several factors that can make the learning process more effective and user-friendly.

Information Presentation

Often highly complex, information needs to be properly formatted and presented to its intended audience in a concise and effective way. Clarity of presentation plays a critical role in the overall learning process. It is important to consider proper visual and/or audio delivery methods. Information architecture, spatial organization, layout considerations, data density and sound levels, among others things, need to be carefully considered.

Information Delivery

To ensure effective information delivery and enhance the users’ learning experience, it is important to select and apply the most effective methods of information delivery. For example, learning new features of a digital platform may require a combination of methods, such as instructional training, online resources, collaborative workshops and user manuals. The lecture format, a popular if not somewhat outdated method of information delivery, is widely used in higher education. This form of learning requires students to understand and retain the information presented by their instructor during a lecture. There are a number of factors in the use of this information delivery format, however, that can make the students’ learning process very challenging, including the instructors’ voice, cadence, rhythm of speech, accent, physical posture, their energy level, as well as their ability to effectively hold the attention of a lecture hall.

Information Relevance

It is not enough to simply present the new information to students; it is equally critical to effectively illustrate to students the relevance of this new information as it applies to real-world, current industry examples. This is one of the biggest factors, which, in my opinion, is often lacking in the instructional realm of academia.

Empathy

Empathy is a key element of effective information delivery. This is particularly true in an interactive form as part of the instructional process. This in turn leads to a much more effective and enjoyable learning experience for the user. Understanding the holistic and conceptual framework of what they are learning, also allows them to apply new skills and information much more effectively. This is why it is very important for the instructor to not only explain the “what” and the “how,” but also the “why.”

Conclusion

The factors described above are equally important in both the educational and corporate environment. The latter includes departments such as Development, Operations, Product and Human Resources, where effective instructional methods play a critical role.

The more complex and advanced the information is, the greater the instructional effort needs to be made, to deliver an effective and user-friendly learning experience to a technologically and intellectually diverse audience. Available instructional resources need to be properly researched and analyzed. Appropriate content delivery methods need to be carefully selected. Moreover, the information delivery methods may need to be customized and modified, should the need arise, even during the ongoing instructional process.

In the end, such an approach will improve the users’ learning processes, ultimately enhancing their overall experience of learning.

About the author:

uxplanet.org http://uxplanet.org

Alex Yampolsky
Alex Yampolsky
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The Three Development Paradigms: Procedural, Object-Oriented, and Functional | WPShout

three pears

When you’re brand new to development in PHP or JavaScript, you don’t really need or want to think too hard about programming paradigms. You just want to get things to work. And that makes a lot of sense. But eventually as you go along, you start to wonder. What’s this “OOP” thing people seem obsessed with? Am I doing that? Should I be?

Fundamentally, this article is for people in a place like that. Our goal today is to clarify what these three major paradigms in software development are, how they relate to each other, and which you’ll want to use when. Contrary to popular belief, there isn’t a “right” or “wrong” answer ever.

Before we start breaking down all the programming paradigms we’ll cover, it makes sense to be clearer about what we mean by “paradigms”. To cite a definition which is relevant, the American Heritage Dictionary says a paradigm is:

A set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitutes a way of viewing reality for the community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline

Continue reading The Three Development Paradigms: Procedural, Object-Oriented, and Functional | WPShout

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Difference Between SPF and UPF Rating System – Sungrubbies.com

UPF what you need to know

 

SPF vs. UPFSummary of all major differences between SPF and UPF rating systems. What you need to know about SPF and UPF.

Both SPF (Sun Protection Factor) and UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor) are standards used to measure sunburn protection. SPF, the standard used to measure the effectiveness of sunscreens, has been around for many years. The UPF system is relatively new and was created specially for sun protective fabrics. At first, American sun protective fabrics were rated using the SPF standard until the FTC finalized the UPF standard we have today. Use of the UPF standard is voluntary so some sun protective fabric manufactures still use the SPF system.

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Tetrahedron

Tetrahedron puzzle
Tetrahedron
Tetrahedron

Four triangular faces along with six edges meeting at four vertices together describe the regular tetrahedron. The tetrahedron is the root of all entanglements that shape the perceivable bonds that hold life together in this dimension. The regular tetrahedron can be found at the source of all three-dimensional forms and is fundamental in the creation of all patterns and holographic configurations.

“All of the definable structuring of Universe is tetrahedrally coordinate in rational number increments of the tetrahedron. By tetrahedron, we mean the minimum thinkable set that would subdivide the Universe and have the interconnectedness where it comes back upon itself. The basic structural unit of physical Universe quantation, tetrahedron has the fundamental prime number oneness.”

Buckminster Fuller

“Within it (tetrahedron) lies the energy that holds all life together. The bonds that hold atoms, particles and molecules together, all the way down to nanoparticles and all the way up to macroparticles, are tetrahedral. Everything that exists as you conceive of it in a 3-dimensional world, is held together by these tetrahedral bonds.”

Buckminster Fuller

“The tetrahedron is a form of energy package. The tetrahedron is transformable…All of the definable structuring of Universe is tetrahedrally coordinate in rational number increments of the tetrahedron.”

Buckminster Fuller

2 Triangles forming a Tetrahedron
2 Triangles forming a Tetrahedron

“Two Triangular Energy Events Make Tetrahedron: The open-ended triangular spiral can be considered one “energy event” consisting of an action, reaction and resultant. Two such events (one positive and one negative) combine to form the tetrahedron.”

Buckminster Fuller

 

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The shape of the universe

shape of the universe
What shape is the Universe
What shape is the Universe?

There are three possible geometries of the universe: closed, open and flat from top to bottom. The closed universe is of finite size and, due to its curvature, traveling far enough in one direction will lead back to one’s starting point. The open and flat universes are infinite and traveling in a constant direction will never lead to the same point.

Universe with positive curvature. A positively curved universe is described by elliptic geometry, and can be thought of as a three-dimensional hypersphere, or some other spherical 3-manifold (such as the Poincaré dodecahedral space), all of which are quotients of the 3-sphere.

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Cryptocurrencies, Explained: How Blockchain Technology Could Solve 3 Big Problems Plaguing the Art Industry

  • PROBLEM 1: THE LINGERING MYSTERIES OF PROVENANCE & AUTHENTICITY
  • PROBLEM 2: THE WEIGHT OF THE TRADITIONAL FINANCE SYSTEM
  • PROBLEM 3: THE BURDEN OF TRADITIONAL CONTRACTS
    __________________________________________________________________
blockchain
blockchain

PROBLEM 1: THE LINGERING MYSTERIES OF PROVENANCE & AUTHENTICITY

Relatively few artworks today offer the air-tight security of a certificate of authenticity backed by an unbroken chain of title. Gaps in the provenance paper trail undermine both sides of the market, with collectors often left to wonder if they’re being presented looted works or outright fakes, and sellers sometimes forced to accept lower offers due to buyers’ hesitance over the uncertainties.

Continue reading Cryptocurrencies, Explained: How Blockchain Technology Could Solve 3 Big Problems Plaguing the Art Industry

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Super Blue Blood Moon

Super Blood Moon 2018
Super Blood Moon 2018
Super Blood Moon 2018

The rare Super Blue Blood Moon is about to happen for the first time in 150 years!

Early Wednesday morning brought a lunar event that hasn’t been seen since 1866.

It was at least partially visible in all 50 U.S. states, though the views were better the farther west you live.

Let’s break this down. This event – called a super blue blood moon – was actually three fairly common lunar happenings all happening at the same time.

And scientists say that information gathered during the event could help them figure out where to land a rover on the moon.

Continue reading Super Blue Blood Moon